Introduction: Confucianism, the Chinese Dream and National
Chapter 1 The Confucian Social Ideal and People's Faith /
Ⅰ. Confucius's Ideology Has the Most Basic Value Foundation /
Ⅱ. Confucius's Thought on ""Great Harmony"" and Social Harmony /
Ⅲ. The Rich Meanings of the ""Great Harmony"" Thought /
1. ""The World for All"" and Public Consciousness /
2. ""Selecting the Able and Virtuous"" and ""Valuing Honesty and
Friendly Relationship"" /
3. The Confucian Ren Doctrine of ""Fostering Love from Loving One's Own Parents"" /
4. Harmonious Society and Gentle Heart-Mind of the Public /
Chapter 2 The Confucian Spirit Constitutes the Core and Essence of Traditional Chinese Culture / 0
Ⅰ. The Confucian Spirit Belongs to Deep Philosophical Culture /
1. Confucian Culture within the Vision of Culturology /
2. Re-Study Confucius's Moral Theory /
3. On the Confucian Philosophy of ""Zhong Dao"" (the Middle Way) /
Ⅱ. The Confucian Spirit Is the Representative of Traditional Chinese Culture /
1. The Status of Confucianism in Traditional Chinese Culture /
2. The Great Vitality of Confucian Culture /
3. The Three Phases of Confucianism and Social Relations /
Chapter 3 The Confucian Spirit and Building Core Socialist Values /
Ⅰ. The Significance of the Confucian Spirit in Contemporary China /
1. Confucian Culture and Contemporary Chinese Society /
2. On the Civilizing Significance of Confucian Culture /
3. Confucius's Wisdom: Laying the Cultural Foundation for People's Faith /
Ⅱ. Rooted in Thousands of Years of Culture, Laying Solid Foundation for the Values /
1. To Illustrate Moral Excellence with Dao, to Revere Dao with Moral
Excellence—the Significance of Building Core Values /
2. Politics Means Impartiality, Rectifying and Cultivating Oneself—Grasping the Key to the Value System Construction /
3. Prospering Our Nation by Morals, Educating People by Morals—Absorbing Nourishments from Thousands of Years of Culture /
4. Fastening the First Button in Our Lifetime—Pondering on the Long-Range Project Related to Our National Prosperity /
Ⅲ. Chinese Confucianism and the Traditional Thinking of Incorrupt Government /
1. ""The Governance of Emperor Wen and Emperor Wu in the Zhou Dynasty"" and ""Maintaining the Public Order"" /
2. Confucius's Talking about ""Rectifying the Decrees"" and ""Examining the Officials' Moral Integrity"" /
3. To Rectify and Cultivate Onself, and to Follow the Doctrine of Incorruption and Fairness /
4. Justice-Interests Relation and ""Political Integrity"" /
Chapter 4 The Confucian Spirit Provides Rich Nutrients for Realizing the Chinese Dream /
Ⅰ. Upholding Justice and the Fundamental Spirit of Traditional Chinese Culture /
Ⅱ. Lighting up the World and People's Heart-Mind with the Traditional ""Eight Virtues"" /
1. Why We Focus on ""Virtues"" /
2. How ""the Eight Virtues"" Took Shape /
3. How to Comprehend ""the Eight Virtues"" /
4. ""The Eight Virtues"" and ""Being Sensible"" /
5. The Everlasting ""Eight Virtues"" /
Conclusion: The Greatest Gift China Contributed to the World /
List of Works Cited /
About the Translation /
The Confucian Spirit Provides Rich Nutrients for Realizing the Chinese Dream
To realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, we must draw nourishment from fine traditional Chinese culture.
This very culture, with Confucianism as its core, is built upon the peopleoriented principle, and advocates a series of qualities such as faithfulness, harmony as well as integrity, therefore laying a solid foundation for the formation of
core socialist values. The traditional Chinese morals are later refined and rendered as eight virtues, respectively, Xiao (filial piety), Ti (brotherhood), Zhong (loyalty), Xin (faithfulness), Li (propriety), Yi (righteousness), Lian (integrity), Chi (the sense of honor and disgrace). These specific virtues, as the set of moral codes, Chinese people have all lived by through ages, will facilitate the moral and ethical construction of our times. This is where the ground and key note of core socialist values lie. Under the guidance of the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, the peace-and harmony-loving Chinese people, who care deeply about the world, will do their bit and contribute even more to the international community, vigorously promoting the traditional Chinese Culture, inheriting its essence,as well as spreading it all over the world. This is the greatest gift that Chinese people has dedicated to the world and mankind.
I. Upholding Justice and the Fundamental Spirit of Traditional Chinese Culture
Since modern times, Chinese scholars have been discussing "Zhengyi (正义justice)" in terms of the English word "justice". As a large number of Western theories focusing on "justice" were introduced, the studies of various social problems were then carried out. However, the Chinese theories on "Zhengyi", with their abundant connotations, have enjoyed a much longer history, thereby laying a solid foundation for the core socialist values.
Early in the times of Yao and Shun, "Yi" was already a major issue that people would like to talk about. Later, "Yi", as one of the "five Confucian virtues", also became an extremely important moral concept. In the early discussions, "Yi" has the meaning of "justice". "Yi is appropriateness" (the Doctrine of the Golden Mean), in this sense, "Yi" must also imply "justice", otherwise there would not be such a term, so in Mozi Tianzhizhong, it puts forth the idea that "Yi is justice". "Yi " not only refers to the appropriateness and fairness of human behaviors, but also that of social system evaluation. It is not difficult to find through careful comparison that the Western theory of "justice" is included and sublimated.
Firstly, "Zhengyi" is the precondition for world harmony and peace. The universal law and fundamental value of human civilization lie in fairness and justice, which first manifest themselves as the harmony and peace in social order. For Confucius and Confucianist, "the whole world is one community", and "the government officials must hold a correct outlook of power, and be just and fair", then the social morality will be heading in a good direction". Freedom, equity, fairness and rule of law, things that we are pursuing today, are all attributed to "Gongyi
（公义 righteouseness）" or "Zhengyi". A society in which everyone gets along and honors integrity and honesty, and "the old are cared for until death, the adults are gainfully employed, and the children are nurtured, and widowers, widows, orphans, childless seniors, the disabled and diseased are all taken care of" (The Confucian School's Analects - Li Yun) is the ideal community that the Chinese people have been longing for. Only a harmonious and stable society can develop and flourish, and "when the states of equilibrium and harmony exist in perfection, a proper order will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be nourished". In Mozi - Tian Zhi Zhong, it emphasizes that "if the ruler reigns with Yi, the whole country is at peace, otherwise, in chaos". It is also pointed out in Xunzi - Fu Pian that "to achieve success one must act in accordance with Yi". Jia Yi, in his Xin Shu - Wei Bu Xin, also holds that "people will follow the one who sticks to Yi and disciplines himself with it". So, "Yi" is the common value and aspiration shared by generations of the Chinese people.
Secondly, "Zhengyi", as a kind of social requirement, is what defines a person as a human being. Exploring the value of human nature as well as that of human beings and meditating on the problem of "what defines a person as a human being" is the priority among priorities to traditional Chinese culture, especially to Confucianism. The Book of Rites - Guan Yi makes such a statement that "generally speaking, what makes man a man is the meaning of his Liyi (propriety and righteousness)". In The Book of Rites - Li Yun, there is a discussion over "Renyi (kindheartedness)"— "kindness on the part of the father, and filial duty on that of the son; gentleness on the part of the elder brother, and obedience on that of the younger; righteousness on the part of the husband, and submission on that of the wife; kindness on the part of elder, and deference on that of junior; benevolence on the part of the ruler, and loyalty on that of the minister—these ten are the things which men consider to be right". Confucianism attaches great importance to "Renyi", which is closely related to "Renqing (human feelings)". "Yi", when discussed in terms of being a human person, indeed motivates people to do what is morally proper, observe the social etiquette, become "brave and right" (The Book of Documents - Gao Tao Mo), and "deal with political affairs for righteousness' sake while ruling over the people with virtue" (the Book of Documents - Zhong Hui Zhi Gao). When "Yi" and "Li (propriety)" conflicts, "Yi should always come first" (The Analects of Confucius - Yang Huo). "Thinking of Yi when seeing Li" (The Analects of Confucius - Xian Wen), and "thinking of Yi when getting benefits" (The Analects of Confucius - Jisun). As it comes to self-cultivation, one should illustrate one's own illustrious virtue, and bring up the good deeds of one's family members, obey the codes of ethics, so as to "rest in the highest excellence". Throughout the history of China, people with lofty ideals were always ready to sacrifice their lives for righteousness. This kind of national spirit exerts so far-reaching influence that it has become a great treasure for the Chinese people.
Thirdly, "Zhengyi" lays stress on people's responsibility in the social ethics. According to the requirement of "Yi", each member of the society should "discipline oneself by Zhengyi" (Records of the Historian - You Xia Lie Zhuan), and follow the social order. A further requirement is brought up when the problem of "what defines a person as a human being" is solved — to perform one's duties and to fulfill one's obligations. At the downfall of the Shang Dynasty, Jiang Taigong advised Emperor Wen of Zhou "the country will enjoy ever-growing prosperity when Yi triumphs over desires, and will decline when desires overrule Yi" (Liu Tao - Ming Zhuan). "Yi (righteousness)" is equally important in both governing a state and personal development. Confucianism advocates that one should follow "Zhongdao (neutrality)" in one's social life. What "Zhong" underlines first is the appropriateness of one's thought and behavior, then it requires people to figure out the integration of "the will of people" and "the law of nature", and find a proper balance between "human desires" and "the heavenly principles"—this is being "Zhong" (being neutral) in one's social life, which also complies with "Yi". As the subjects of carrying out their social roles, people should show certain self-consciousness in fulfilling moral obligations.
Having discussed the traditional Chinese concept of "Zhengyi" in the text above, it is natural to infer that a prosperous, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious nation must be the one that values justice. In such a society, each member behaves in accordance with his or her specific role, cultivating his or her mind, acting in good faith, and be responsible, patriotic and dedicated. "Zhengyi" is fundamental to faithfulness and friendliness. In the process of promoting the national spirit and rebuilding the value system, people should follow the principle of "Zhengyi" and be ready and willing to contribute to this course, so as to fulfill their obligations while integrating social justice and personal interest. Only in this way can one find his or her own value of life, and at the same time, social equity and justice can be maintained.